quality management history, gurus, TQM theories, process improvement, and organisational 'excellence'
The history of quality management, from mere 'inspection' to Total Quality Management, and its modern 'branded interpretations such as 'Six Sigma', has led to the development of essential processes, ideas, theories and tools that are central to organisational development, change management, and the performance improvements that are generally desired for individuals, teams and organisations.
These free resources, materials and tools are an excellent guide to the quality management area, for practical application in organisations, for study and learning, and for teaching and training others. The materials are pdf files, for which you will require 'Acrobat Reader', available free from adobe.com.
These free materials are provided here by permission of the UK Department of Industry, which is gratefully acknowledged. The materials listed and linked from this page are subject to Crown Copyright.
history of quality management
The roots of Total Quality Management can be traced to early 1920's production quality control ideas, and notably the concepts developed in Japan beginning in the late 1940's and 1950's, pioneered there by Americans Feigenbum, Juran and Deming... More about Quality Management and TQM history.
quality management gurus and theories
Quality Management resulted mainly from the work of the quality gurus and their theories: the American gurus featured in the 1950's Japan: Joseph Juran, W Edwards Deming, and Armand Feigenbum; the Japanese quality gurus who developed and extended the early American quality ideas and models: Kaoru Ishikawa, Genichi Taguchi, and Shigeo Shingo; and the 1970-80's American Western gurus, notably Philip Crosby and Tom Peters, who further extended the Quality Management concepts after the Japanese successes... More about the Quality Management gurus and their theories, including the development and/or use of the Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) cycle, Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagrams, stratification, check-sheets, histograms, scatter-charts, process control charts, system design, parameter design, tolerance design ('Taguchi methodology'), Quality Improvement Teams (QIT), Just In Time (JIT), Management By Walking About (MBWA), McKinsey 7-S Framework, etc.
total quality management (TQM)
Total Quality Management features centrally the customer-supplier interfaces, (external and internal customers and suppliers). A number of processes sit at each interface. Central also is an organisational commitment to quality, and the importance of communicating this quality commitment, together with the acknowledgement that the right organisational culture is essential for effective Total Quality Management.... More about the fundamentals and structures of the TQM model, including the people, processes and systems in the organisation.
processes - understanding processes and methods for process improvement
Understanding processes is essential before attempt is made to improve them. This is a central aspect to Total Quality Management, and also to more modern quality and process improvement interpretations and models such as Six Sigma.... More about Total Quality Management process and process improvement methods.
quality process improvement tools and techniques
A wide range of tools and techniques is used for identifying, measuring, prioritising and improving processes which are critical to quality. Again these ideas and methods feature prominently in modern interpretations of Total Quality Management methodology, such as Six Sigma. These process improvement tools and techniques include: DRIVE (Define, Review, Identify, Verify, Execute), process mapping, flow-charting, force field analysis, cause and effect, brainstorming, Pareto analysis, Statistical Process Control (SPC), Control charts, bar charts, 'dot plot' and tally charts, check-sheets, scatter diagrams, matrix analysis, histograms..... More about tools and techniques for process evaluation and improvement.
developing people and teams
People are a fundamental component within any successfully developing organisation. Take away the people and the organisation is nothing. Take away the people's motivation, commitment and ability to work together in well-organised teams, and again, the organisation is nothing. Conversely, inspire the people to work well, creatively, productively, and the organisation can fly. Logically therefore, the development and proper utilization of people are vital to the success of all quality management initiatives. There are a wide range of models that are used in selecting, organising, developing, training and motivating people, among which are classical models such as Belbin, Myers Briggs, (MBTI - the Myers Briggs Type Indicator), Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing' model, John Adair's Action Centred Leadership model.... More about people and culture within quality management.
There are many other methods and models for optimising the effectiveness of people within organisations on this website. Look at the main index if you are not already on the main website.
quality management systems
A 'Total Quality Organisation' generally benefits from having an effective Quality Management System (QMS). A Quality Management System is typically defined as: "A set of co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organisation in order to continually improve the effectiveness and efficiency of its performance." Customer expectations inevitably drive and define 'performance' criteria and standards. Therefore Quality Management Systems focus on customer expectations and ongoing review and improvement.... More about Quality Management Systems, what they are, and how to set up a good QMS.
performance measurement and management
There are many ways to measure organisational performance other than financial output or profit. Modern measurement focuses on the essential activities, resources and other factors - many less intangible than traditional indictors - that impact on final outputs. These include modern methods such as 'Balanced Scorecard'.... More about performance measurement, and cost of quality.
excellence and the European Quality Management Model
The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model® is a useful framework for developing quality and excellence within an organisation... More.
TQM self-assessment and awards using the EFQM® model
Any organisation can assess itself provided it has the commitment to so so, and a framework for the self-assessment... Here are some ideas, and a process for quality and excellence self-assessment.
TQM benchmarking and questionnaire (readiness for benchmarking)
Benchmarking is a widely used term within the field of organisational measurement and management .... Here is an explanation of benchmarking, and a questionnaire by which an organisation (or a department or process team) can assess its readiness for benchmarking.
TQM implementation framework and blueprint
Here is a framework and 'blueprint' for the implementation of a quality improvement or 'excellence' initiative. It includes the following elements:
Tools and techniques
People and teamwork
Quality management system
EFQM Excellence Model®
This blueprint for achieving organisational excellence is based on many years of research, education and advisory work in the European Centre for Business Excellence (ECforBE), and the research and education division of Oakland Consulting plc. It is, along with the other resources in this section, best current information and advice from the UK Department of Industry.
TQM case studies
Here are a number of case studies featuring organisations that have implemented quality management and process improvement initiatives. These case studies illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the various methodologies, tools, techniques and concepts included within quality management and quality process improvement theory.
Airedale Springs Limited case study (people, team work, skills recognition)
Appor Limited case study (continuous improvement, culture change)
BAE Systems/Waer Systems Limited case study (supply chain process improvement, project champions, supplier partnerships)
British Telecom Plc case study (quality framework, strategy, systems, self-assessment, balanced scorecard)
GSM Group case study (mission statement, strategic planning, kaizen, partnerships)
Hydrapower Dynamics Ltd case study (teamwork, quality bubbles, systems, common sense quality)
Lakeside Engineered Systems Division, Aeroquip Group case study (quality, excellence, kaizen, process improvement)
Mortgage Express case study (business excellence, stakeholders, teamwork, quality awards, measurement)
Spembly Medical Limited case study (design for manufacture, projects, concurrent engineering, innovation, millennium products)
Springfarm Architectural Mouldings Limited case study (values, surveys, recognition, communication system)
Vista Optics Limited case study (business excellence, self-assessment, benchmarking, quality awards, statistical process control [SPC] )
examples of materials relating to quality, performance management, and organisational development, available on this website
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
McGregor's X-Y Theory
Herzberg's Motivators and Hygiene Factors
Tuckman's Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing model
Albert Humphrey's TAM model
Workshops - how to run
Sharon Drew Morgen's Facilitation model
and the many other related performance management and organisational development materials on the main businessballs website, if you are not already there.